1.Introduction:

Chickpea is one of the oldest cash crops and cultivated in India since ancient times. Chickpea is popularly known as BENGAL GRAM or CHANA or GRAM in India. Chickpea can be made inti split pulse (dal) and flour (besan). Variety of dishes,snacks,sweets can be made from chickpea flour. Major states which produce chickpeas are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Farmers are now more aware about this cash crop. By using VARAD TECHNIQUES and our products we observed that many farmers from different villages, states took very good yield. We also observed that farmers got 400-1000 bulbs, dana in one plant. Such results inspire us to develop our products.

2.Varieties

State Recommended Varieties

Andhra Pradesh ICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10

Assam KWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59

GujaratPusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053

HaryanaHaryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053

Himachal Pradesh BBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550

Jammu & KashmirGNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1

Karnataka BDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1

Punjab PBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-1053, GPF-2, PDG-3

RajasthanGNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-1053, PDG 84-1

Tamil Nadu ICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4

Uttar Pradesh KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315, Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa- 1053

Madhya Pradesh JG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053

Maharashtra Vijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053

Orissa Radhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003

West BengalPusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003

Bihar KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003

North Eastern StatesKWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256

The brief description of some of the important varieties of chick pea is given below:

A.Desi or Small Seeded Varieties

1.Avrodhi:This variety matures in 150-155 days. This is a medium tall, semi erect type variety. Grains are brown in color. This variety is resistant to wilt disease. Yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

2.Pant G-186:It was developed at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. It matures in 125 days. Yield potential is 22-25 quintals per hectare.

3.Gaurav:It matures in 140-145 days. Plants are medium and semi erect type. Grains are bold and brownish yellow in color. It's moderately resistant to rust and blight diseases. Yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

4.Uday (KP-75):It matures in 140-145 days. This variety is suitable for late planting. Grains are medium in size and brown in color. It is moderately resistant to wilt. Yield potential is 20-25 quintals per hectare.

5.Pusa-256:It matures in 145-150 days. Grains are bold and brown in color. This variety is equally suitable for timely and late planting. It is resistant to Ascochyta blight. Yield potential is 22-25 quintals per hectare.

6.Pusa-362:It matures in 145-155 days. Grains are medium in size. This variety is suitable for late planting in irrigated conditions; it is resistant to wilt disease. Yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

7.Pusa-372:It matures in 120-140 days. Grains are medium in size. This variety is susceptible to wilt disease and suitable for late planting. Yield potential is 18-22 quintals per hectare.

8.JG-315:This variety matures in 145-150 days. It is suitable for growing in rainfed areas. This variety is resistant to wilt disease. Yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

9.Haryana Chana-1:This matures in 135-145 days. Plants are dwarf with light green leaves. Grains are bright yellow in color. It is resistant to wilt disease and tolerant to pod borer. It is also suitable for late planting. Yield potential is 22-25 quintals per hectare.

10.Gora Hisari:It matures in 140-150 days. Grains are bold and light brown in color with good cooking quality. This variety is suitable for irrigated areas only. Yield potential is 18-20 quintals per hectare.

11.K-850:This variety was developed at C.S.Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur from a cross Banda local and Etah bold. It is medium tall (45-60 centimeters) with upright growth habit. It is an early variety maturing in 145-150 days. Flowers are violet. Pods mostly double seeded. Seeds are round, smooth, reddish-brown, attractive and very bold (340g/1000 seeds). This variety has been released for whole of Uttar Pradesh. It has a yield potential of 25-30 quintals per hectare.

12.Pant G-114:It was developed from a cross G-130 and 1540. It is a medium maturing variety (150 days) having semi-erect, light green foliage. The seeds are brown and of medium size. The variety is moderately resistant to blight. It has high yield potential (30-35 quintals per hectare) and wide adaptation and consistency in performance in entire northern plains of the country.

13.H-208:This is a medium tall, semi-spreading and medium maturing variety. It has light green foliage. Seed is brown and medium bold. This variety has been developed at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. It is susceptible to the blight disease. Its average yield is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

14.H-355:Developed from a cross G-140 and 526 in 1977. It matures in about 160 days. It is suitable for irrigated and wilt prone areas. Seeds are small in size and brownish-yellow in color. Its average yield is 20-25 quintals per hectare, it is especially suitable for wilt prone areas of Madhya Pradesh.

15.Radhey:It is a medium maturing variety (150 days). Plants are tall, semi-spreading with light green foliage. Flowers are pink in color. Seeds are smooth, light brown and bold. It is suitable for growing in eastern, Central and Bundelkhand tracts of Uttar Pradesh. It has yield potential of 25-30 quintals per hectare.

16.C-235:It is an outstanding variety, which is not affected even in years of severe epiphytotics of gram blight. It is fairly early maturing (145-150 days) and stem rot and blight tolerant. Seeds are yellowish-brown and medium in size. This is suitable for growing in Punjab and Haryana. The average yield is 20-25 quintals per hectare though it has a maximum yield potential of 30-35 quintals per hectare.

17.G-543:It has dwarf stature as compared to C-235. In total number of branches, number of pods per plant, it is slightly superior to C-235. It has better resistant to gram blight and wilt than C-235. It is highly resistant to foot blight whereas C-235 is moderately susceptible. It gives about 20-25 quintals of grain per hectare. It is recommended to grow in Punjab and Haryana.

18.BR-78:It is selection from local material. It is semi-erect and bushy in growth habit. Leaves are of dark green color with a rough surface. It matures in about 142-145 days. Seeds are green and medium in size. Its average yield is about 20 quintals per hectare. It is suitable to grow in entire Bihar.

19.ST-4:It is a selection from indigenous stock. It is drought resistant. It is brown seeded, semi-spreading type. It matures in about 155-158 days. It has a yield potential of 20-25 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for growing in Ajmer and Kota divisions of Rajasthan.

20.RS-10:It is a selection from indigenous stock. It is drought resistant. It is brown seeded semi-spreading type. It matures in about 155-158 days. It has a yield potential of 20-25 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for growing in heavy soils of South Bihar.

21.RS-11:It is a white flowered mutant from RS-10. It is drought resistant. Seeds are medium bold and brown in color. It is medium in maturity. It has yield potential of 20-25 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for growing in heavy soils and irrigated conditions of Rajasthan.

22.PUSA-209:It was developed at I.A.R.I, New Delhi, from a cross P-827 and C-235 and was released for general cultivation in 1980 for Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. The crop matures in about 145-165 days. Plant height is about 65 cm. Seeds are attractive and medium bold (135 g/1000 seeds) and light brown in color. Its yield potential is about 25-30 quintals per hectare.

23.BDN- 9-3:it is a selection from Badanpur developed in 1978. It matures in 95-100 days. Seeds are yellowish-brown. Its average yield is 10-12 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for growing in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

24.Annegri-1:It is an early maturing variety (100 days) developed from a selection in Karnataka. Seeds are yellowish-brown and of medium size. Its average yield is about 10-15 quintals per hectare.

25.Phule G-5:It is a pink seeded variety with medium seed size, round smooth seed coat, preferred for parching purpose. Its average yield is 12-15 quintals per hectare.

26.C-3:It matures in 90-100 days. Seeds are yellowish-brown and of medium size. Its average yield is about 15 quintals per hectare.

27.B-124:It was developed from a cross N-31 and B-75. It matures in 135-140 days. It is a small seeded variety. Its yield potential is about 24 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for growing in West Bengal.

A.Kabuli Gram Varieties

1.C-104:It is medium in maturity, seeds are of salmon color and very bold. It is suitable for growing in the irrigated areas in Punjab. In Uttar Pradesh also, it has given very good yield. It should be avoided in humid areas where there is severe attack of blight disease. The average yield is 15-20 quintals per hectare. This variety is suitable for culinary purposes. Its seeds are creamy white and have almost double the size of desi gram.

2.L-550:It is tall, semi-spreading, medium maturing variety with light green foliage. It is very early in flowering among the kabuli types and matures about ten days earlier than C-104. It matures in 160 days. Its average yield is about 18-22 quintals per hectare. It has shown consistently higher yield in the northern plains and central zone of the country.

3.L-144:It is a tall and quick growing in irrigated areas of Haryana and Punjab. Seeds are bold and whitish-orange. The average yield is 12-15 quintals per hectare.

4.Pusa-1003:It matures in 130-135 days. This variety is suitable for growing in irrigated conditions. Seeds are bold. This variety is resistant to wilt. Yield potential is 28 quintals per hectare.

5.Pusa-1053:It matures in 130-140 days. This variety is suitable for timely planting in irrigated conditions. Seeds are extra bold. It is essential to wilt disease. Yield potential is 25 quintals per hectare.

6.Sadabahar:It matures in 145-160 days. Grains are green in color. It is tolerant to wilt. Its yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare.

3.Soil

It can be grown on wide variety of soils. Sandy loam to clay is considered to be most suitable soil for gram cultivation. Soil having water logging problem are not suitable for cultivation. Saline alkaline soil are not suitable. pH in the range of 5.5-7 is ideal for sowing. Avoid sowing of same crop continuously in field. Follow proper crop rotation. Crop rotation with cereals help in controlling soil borne disease. Common rotation are Kharif fallow-chick pea, Kharif fallow-gram wheat/barley/raya. Chari-gram, bajra-gram, rice/maize-gram.

4.Climate

Chickpea is a cool season annual crop performing optimally in 70° to 80°F daytime temperatures and 64° to 70°F night temperatures. They produce good yields in drier conditions because of their deep tap root. Heavier rainfall seasons (over 30 in. annually) show reduced yields due to disease outbreaks and stem lodging problems from the excessive vegetative growth. Areas with lighter, well distributed rainfall patterns have produced the highest yield and quality chickpea seed.

5.Land Cultivation

We observed that chickpea crop have various disease attack. So it is necessary to do proper cultivation and ploughing of land for best yield. Before doing rotar give dose of,

·SSP (Single Super Phosphate) – 1bag

·V-Phorate – 6kg

All above are for one acre.

6.Seed Treatment

For low and medium quality land take 22-25 kg seeds per acre.

For high quality land take 15-20 kg seeds per acre.

·Varad Humic gel (Humic acid 99%) – 100gm

·Varad Carbo – 50 (Carbendazim 50%WP) – 100gm

Take ½ litre clean water and mix both ingredients in water and apply on seeds and let it dry for overnight.

Make sure that once the paste of humic gel and VCOC is completely dried and applied on all the seeds . Then only sow it.

7.Cultivation

If you have good quality land then distance between two lines should be 2 feet and distance between two seeds should be 8-10 inch. And if you have medium quality land then distance between two lines should be 1.5 feet.

8.Fertilizer First Dose:

While sowing apply this dose of fertilizer for proper growth of plant.

For one Acre Farm,

·20:20:00 – 1bag

·High Power – 10kg

·Shakti Gold (Triacontanol 0.05%GR) – 10kg

9.First Spray:

15-20 days from sowing

for 15 litre pump

·Varad Humic Gel (Humic Acid 99%) – 25gm

·Varad Challenger (Amino Acid 40000PPM) – 5ml

·V- Thoko (Thiophenatemethyl) – 20gm

10.